Water Melon Crop Management

 

Water Melon Crop

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

CLIMATE

 

Temperature  20-30°C

Rainfall  50-75mm

Harvesting Temperature    25-30°C

Sowing Temperature    20-25°C

 

SOIL

LAND PREPARATION

Plough land and bring to fine tilth. In North India, sowing is done February – March month. In North East and West India sowing is done during November to January. Watermelon can be direct seeded or transplant in nursery and then transplanted to main field.

SOWING- Time of sowing

In the North it is sown during middle of January to March and in November to December.

Spacing

Depending upon sowing method spacing may get vary. In pit method use row to row spacing of 2-3.5m and 60 cm between two plant.

Sowing Depth

Plant seed about 2-3cm deep.

Method of sowing

For sowing different methods of planting like furrow method, Pit method and hill method can be used depending upon climate and season.  

Furrow Method

Sowing is done on either side of furrows. Sow 3-4 seeds (After germination keep only healthy seedling) at a time and keep plant to plant distance of 60-90cm.

Pit Method

Sow 4 seeds in pit. For that make pit of 60x60x60cm at distance of 2-3.5m between two rows and 0.6-1.2m between plants. Fill pit with well decomposed cow dung and soil. After germination keep only one seedling.

Hill method

Similar to pit method. In this, pit of 30x30x30cm pits are made at distance of 1-1.5m. Two seeds are sown per hill.

SEED Rate

For sowing one acre land, seed rate of 1.5 to 2 kg is required

Seed Treatment

Before sowing treat seed with Carbendazim@2gm/kg of seeds. After chemical treat seeds with Trichoderma viride@4gm per kg of seeds. Dry seeds in shade and then do sowing immediately.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREA

SSP

MURIATE OF POTASH

55

100

25

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

NITROGEN

PHOSPHORUS

POTASH

25

16

15

Application

Apply Farm Yard Manure or well decomposed cowdung@8-10tonnes per acre. Apply Nitrogen@25kg, Phosphorus@16kg and Potash@15kg in form of Urea@55kg, Single Super Phosphate@100kg and Muriate of Potash@25kg per acre. Apply whole amount of Phosphorus, Potash and one third amount of Nitrogen before sowing seed. Apply remaining dose of Nitrogen near vines base, avoid touching it and mixed well in soil during initial growth period.   

When crop is of 10-15 days old, for good growth of crop along with good quality, take spray of 19:19:19+Micro-nutrients@ 2-3gm/Ltr of water. Prevent flower drop and increase yield up to 10% take spray of Humic acid@3ml + MAP(12:61:00)@5gm/Ltr of water at flowering stage. Spray Salicylic Acid(4-5 tabs of Aspirin Tablet 350mg)/15Ltr water at initial flowering, fruiting and maturity stage, One or two times with 30days interval. After 55days of sowing spray 13:00:45@100gm + Hexaconazole @250ml/150Ltr water for fast development of fruits and protection against powdery mildew. 65days after sowing to increase in fruit size, sweetness and colour take spray with 00:00:50 @1.5kg/acre using 100gm/15Ltr of water.

WEED CONTROL

Keep bed weed free during early stage of growth. In absence of proper control measures, weed can cause yield loss of 30%. 15-20days after sowing carry out intercultural operations. Depending upon severity and intensity of weeds, two to three weeding are required.

IRRIGATION

Apply irrigation, every week in summer season. At time of maturity give irrigation only when needed. Avoid over flooding in watermelon field. At time of applying irrigation, should not wet the vines or vegetative parts, especially during flowering and fruit-set. Avoid frequent irrigation in heavy soil as it will promote excessive vegetative growth. For better sweetness and flavour, stop irrigation or reduce watering 3-6days before harvesting.